Forts in India
Golkonda Fort Pictures

Golkonda Fort

Golconda, also known as Golkonda or Golla konda ('shepherd's hill'), is a citadel and fort in Southern India and was the capital of the medieval sultanate of the Qutb Shahi dynasty (c.1518–1687), is situated 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) west of Hyderabad. It is also a tehsil of Hyderabad district, Telangana, India. The region is known for the mines that have produced some of the world's most famous gems, including the Koh-i-Noor, the Hope Diamond and the Nassak Diamond. Golconda Fort was first built by the Kakatiya dynasty as part of their western defenses along the lines of the Kondapalli Fort. The city and fortress are built on a granite hill that is 120 meters (480 ft) high and is surrounded by massive battlements. The fort was rebuilt and strengthened by Pratap Rudra of the Kakatiyas. The fort was further strengthened by the Musunuri Nayaks, who defeated the Tughlaqi army occupying Warangal. The fort was ceded by the Musunuri chief, Kapaya Nayak, to the Bahmani Sultanate as part of the treaty in 1364. The fort became the capital of a major province in the sultanate and, after its collapse, the capital of the Qutb Shahi dynasty. The fort finally fell into ruins after a siege and its fall to the Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in 1687. After the collapse of the Bahmani Sultanate, Golkonda rose to prominence as the seat of the Qutb Shahi dynasty around 1507. Over a period of 62 years, the mud fort was expanded by the first three Qutb Shahi sultans into a massive fortification of granite, extending around 5 km in circumference. It remained the capital of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1590 when the capital was shifted to Hyderabad. The Qutb Shahis expanded the fort, whose 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) outer wall enclosed the city. The fort finally fell into ruin in 1687, after a year long siege leading to its fall at the hands of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.


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